The Wadis (Valleys)

Wadi Damm

Wadi Damm is located near Al Ayn village, Wilayat Ibri, A’Dhahirah Region, and is about 45 km (28 miles) from Ibri city. It is a seasonal wadi, dry much of the year. It relies on the rain which gathers in its water ponds. This wadi is remarkable for its characteristic rocky formations sculpted by erosion. Despite the small amount of water stored in its stream during the dry season, the stream is distinguished by a variety of smooth rocks, out of which nature has formed beautiful water ponds, and this smooth rocky nature is a feature of the water ponds. One of the rocky formations sculpted by erosion is a small cave near the water pool, and it makes a fine camping site for tourists. Also, the wide expanse of spaces of its dry riverbed a short distance from water sources, constitute the best location to take a break, camp and savour the virgin beauty of nature. All you need to get there is a four-wheel drive.

Wadi Ar Rawdha

On the way to this valley the visitor passes many fossils and ruins that speak of civilizations past. The spring rains bring beauty to the landscape, with an enchanting aromatic mix of wild flowers and herbs. You get glimpses of animals grazing on the lush grass in some seasons. Buckthorns lend large expanses of shade that tourists use as camping and resting spots. The wadi is located in Khasab, Musandam Governorate

Wadi Al Arbiyeen

This is one of the most beautiful wadis in Muscat Governorate. It is situated 3 kilometres away from Wilayat Qurayat on the road leading to the villages of Fins and Bamah. The wadi cleaves a deep furrow in the flank of the A’Sharqiyah AlHajar Mountains. An abundance of water characterises the area, where deep pools are found in the wadi. Four villages on both banks form Wadi Al Arbiyeen. These villages are famous for the cultivation of palm trees, bananas, lemon and mango trees.

Wadi Al Khoud

This wadi is situated in Wilayat AlSeeb Muscat Governorate, and is considered one of the largest wadi basins in the Sultanate. Pools are formed in the wadi following heavy rain. According to the villagers, children used to wade through the abundant water of the village, and that is how the village got its name, as Khoud is the Arabic for wade.

Wadi Muayden

The gateway to Al Jabal al Akhdhar (Green Mountain), Birkat Al-Mawz, A’Dakhiliyah Region, and one of the biggest wadis in Oman, its water runs all year round. It is home to Al Muayden village. Trekking fans can reach Al Jabal al Akhdhar through this wadi.

Wadi Bani Khalid

Located 203 kilometres (126 miles) from Muscat. Take the Bidbid – Sur Road in A’Sharqiyah Region(Eastern Region), which forks into a side road leading to Bani Khalid Governorate, then weaves up across the eastern AlHajar Mountains to Bida village deep in the mountains. There you can enjoy the spectacular views of the fertile valley with its spreading trees and abundant water that tumbles down as waterfalls in some areas to form natural pools of water. The road then cuts through the valley to reach Muqal town, well known for its cave. To explore this cave, you’ll have to exercise great caution as you may need to crawl or even scramble in some places. Here the gushing waters creates a loud rushing sound and collects in pools, only to dissipate and gather – once again – in small lakes which the villagers have used to fill three irrigation canals.

Wadi Bani Kharous

This is one of the best known Omani wadis. A visitor to Wadi Bani Kharous is attracted by its fascinating flora and fauna and beautiful landscapes. You are curious to discover unknown sights in its various villages. The landscape casts a magic spell, and the gentle breeze woos you to love its nature, air, and water, an irresistible trio. This wadi is located in Wilayat Ar Rustaq, Al Batinah Region.

Wadi Danak (Fida)

This wadi originates in Fida town in Dhank Province, specifically in Al Khili, an area so steep it is considered a water reservoir for Yanqul and Shuab wadis, whose waters cascade down the face of the mountains. Wadi Danak’s water runs all year round and is home to a multitude of birds. Flanking this wadi on both banks are picturesque villages, which prompted Dhank Province to take A’Dhahirah Region as its emblem.

Wadi Andam

Its remoteness from the sea endows this wadi with a mellow climate, magical nature and tiered trees. Here you’ll find a seamless amalgamation of trees and rocky formations that will steep your senses in total serenity, calmness, rejuvenation and relaxation. This is the beautiful Wadi Andam in the Ash Sharqiyah region. Wadi Andam extends from Willayat Samail to Willayat AL Mudaybi, and ends in Willayat Mahut in the A’Sharqiyah Region(Eastern Region).

Wadi Shab

This wadi is located in Tiwi, part of Sur in A’Sharqiyah Region(Eastern Region). It lies 140 kilometres (87 miles) from Muscat on the Qurayat – Sur Coastal Road. Fresh water cascading from tops of the mountains meet the briny sea water on its banks, creating an environmental diversity unique to this wadi, and making it stand on a pedestal of its own when compared with the other wadis (valleys) in the Sultanate. You’ll doubtless enjoy the adventurous journey through Wadi Shab, as you can only meander through certain areas by boat, or take pleasure in a refreshing hike through this mountainous region.

Wadi An Nakhr

Waterfalls cascading from Jabal Shams (Sun Mountain) form this valley. The valley contains a village that bears its name and which can be seen from the top of Jabal Shams.

Wadi Ad Dayqah

Wadi Ad Dayqah is a tourist attraction, being one of the easy-to-reach wadis, located near Governorate about 90 kilometres from Wadi Aday. To cross this wadi is to explore the Omani mountains and their natural diversity. The wadi is an extension of similar wadis in Ash Sharqiyah Region. About 120 wadis converge into its path, which stretches from Wilayat Dimma Wa Ta’iyeen in the A’Sharqiyah Region (Eastern Region) to its estuary in Wilayat Qurayat, Muscat Governorate. It is one of the year-round flowing wadis.

Wadi Bani Awf

If you love excitement, adventure, and winding mountain roads, you’ll find a challenge in Wadi Bani Awf (The Suspended Road), Al Batinah Region . To traverse this road, you must have a four-wheel drive, and the driver must be an expert in mountain driving. The road is very steep, and it takes about 3 hours to cross this wadi. You will have to swim sometimes, or jump, but excitement is guaranteed! The road goes along a 5 metre (15 feet) wide path that is more than 100 meters (300 feet) high in places.

Wadi Al Hawqayn

Distances of about 40 and 150 kilometres separates it from Willayat Ar Rustaq and Muscat Governorate respectively. This valley is characterised by its year-round flowing streams, as well as beautiful waterfalls and ever-flowing water springs. Wadi Al Qahfi This is located nearly 50 km (31 miles) from Wilayat Mahdah, Al Buraymi Governorate. Water flows most of the year and is distinguished by its fresh quality.


Means a system for the distribution of water and is commonly used to describe the irrigation channel system downstream of the water’s source. Some of them were built more than 1,500 years ago, whilst others were built at the beginning of the 20th century. The genius of the Omani builders is evident in the way they tunneled into the ground to a depth of dozens of meters in order to gain access to the groundwater. These channels were truly a miracle of engineering at a time when mechanical equipment was not available. There are now over 4,000 aflaaj scattered throughout the country

Aflaaj can be divided into 3 types:

1. The Dawudi: these are long tunnels dug into the ground.

2. The Aini: these derive water from a spring, including a hot spring.

3. The Ghayli: a channel tapping a flow in the upper gravels of a wadi.

Falaj Daris

Located in Al-Jeela village, Willayat Sur is an Aini falaj fed by Wadi Shab and this is a remote village. It is the main water source of the village with a total length of its open (not covered) channel of (161) meters, which starts from the wellhead and ends at the water catchments basin and is used for irrigation of plants such as palm and pomegranate and some other seasonal plants. The cultivated area is estimated to be 10034 square meters while the total demand area is 14000 square meters. It is also used for other domestic purposes.

Falaj Al-Khatmeen

Located in Niabat Birkat Al-Mauz, Willayat Nizwa. It is one of the most important Daudi falaj fed by Wadi Al Maiden, which is characterized by its abundant flow during rainfall. It is of a total length from the mother well up to Sharia (the point at which water first appear on the surface of the earth) about 2450 meters. It is very accurate in its distribution of the falaj water and permanent flow throughout the year. One of its channels passes through one of the famous forts in Oman called Bait Al-Radidah which was build during Yoruba era during the period 1649-1711. Therefore it is one of Niabat Birkat Al-Mauz archeological features.

Falaj Al-Malki

Located in Willayat Izki and it is another archeological feature inscribed in the World Heritage List. It is one of the most ancient falaj in Oman. It is called after Malik bin Fahm Al-Azdi and one of the largest falaj in terms of its branches which total to 17 branches. It irrigates a large area of plants and palm trees gardens. It is divided into two divisions one to irrigate Al-Nazar area and the other Al-Yemen area which are considered ancient archeological sites in Oman. Due to climate conditions of the area in terms of low rainfall in addition to severe pressure faced by the reservoir feeding the falaj as a result of development expansion, the falaj water flow declined particularly during droughts, but the structure and the falaj channel are still in good condition and it was provided by a number of support wells to flow in its Sharia so as to enhance its water flow, but still the falaj water deficit is great.

Falaj Al-Mayser

It is one of the Adai deep falaj, where the depth reaches 50 meters under the surface and it is one of the most important falaj in Willayat Al-Rustaq with a large flow of water. The total length of its channels is 5783 meters. It is characterized by its permanent flow as it is fed by two different wadis comprised of sedimentary layers. Local people, who are estimated to be 7000 people, depend on this falaj for irrigation of their agricultural land which its area is 1133698 square meters. The falaj is divided in the town into two divisions. The falaj water is pure, where the EC value 508 MS/cm, pH value 7.61 and temperature 31.9º C and the water flow is affected by both wadis Al-Fara and Al-Sin flow where it may increase to reach 900 l/s during the rise in the water levels and decreases to reach 100 l/s during the decline in the water levels